Universal Principles of Design

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Universal Principle of Design
Krista Franklin
The Principle of Biophilia is the idea that environments with nature views or images reduces stress while enhancing focus and concentration which is very helpful in the classroom.
The Framing Principle uses images and words to manipulate how people interpret something. This is often seen in propaganda posters. Designers usually use comedy to sway opinions.
The Principle of Not Invented Here describes how people buy items made in America as opposed to other countries. They want to support American made projects.
The Proximity Principle is the idea that information or links grouped together will be about the same things. In our minds we automatically follow the principle, especially when searching for information on a website.
Horror Vacui is the process of filling in blank spaces with words or objects instead of leaving it blank and spacious. I have placed this principle in the middle of this section as an example of a time that would be better blank.
Iconic Representation is the use of images to improve recognition/recall of signs. For example we associate the symbol of an envelope as email or mail depending on the context.
The Red Effect is the principle that red is more attractive than other colors. For example a woman dressed in red is more appealing than one dressed in purple.
The Consistency Principle is very important in schools because it allows students to know what is expected of them. Classroom management relies on a system of consistency.
The Depth of Processing is used everyday in the classroom as a teaching technique. Teachers ask comprehension questions while providing visuals along with the text. This allows for students to analyze information more deeply.
The Developmental Cycle is used by teachers when creating a lesson plan. We follow the four stages of: requirements (standards), design, development, and testing.
Operant  Conditioning is used in most classrooms. It is the technique used to modify behavior by rewarding good behaviors and reprimanding for inappropriate/bad behaviors.
The Legibility Principle focuses on the visual clarity of text. In presentation it is important to ensure the text is easy to read and not on a background that will be illegible or cause the eye to be distracted.
The Rosetta Stone Principle is the technique for communicating information by using elements of common knowledge. I use this technique a lot in the classroom through a program called GLAD.
The Alignment Principle which suggests that the placement of text or graphics along common columns or rows is more appealing to the eye aligns with Krug's view that organization will attract more users and will help make a website more user friendly. The Desire Line Principle states how users have a preferred method or line of interaction with an object or environment which Krug associates to the way people scan to find information quickly.
The Chunking Principle is the formatting style of combining information into limited chunks so that the information is easier to find, process, and remember. Medina writes about the technique of chunking when discussing how to retain information into your short/long term memory..
The Accessibility Principle states that objects and environments should be designed in a way that is easy to use for as many people as possible. Norman's book focuses on this idea. The design needs to be easy for users; it is not the users responsibility to try hard to figure out how to use objects/environments. The Flexibility-Usability Principle shows how as flexibility of a system or design increases, the usability of it decreases. Norman discusses how designs need to be easy to use which becomes difficult when the flexibility increases. The designer needs to be aware of this when creating websites or everyday objects.