Gender: Sociological distinction between males and females. Socialization: A process in which people learn to behave in a particular way as dictated by societal values, beliefs, and attitudes.
At a young age children learn that there are distinct expectations for boys and girls. Children become aware of gender roles by the age of two or three and at the age of four or five, most children are firmly entrenched in culturally appropriate gender roles They come to understand and perform these roles through socialization, which occurs through four major agents: family, education, peer groups, and mass media. Socialization into narrowly prescribed gender roles results in the stratification of males and females.
PINK is for GIRLS
BLUE is for BOYS
Four major agents:
1. Family: 2. Education: 3. Peer Groups: 4. Mass Media:
-Girls are given more latitude to step outside of their prescribed gender role. -Daughters are limited by their expectation to be passive and nurturing, generally obedient, and to assume many of the domestic responsibilities.
-Boys are allowed more autonomy and independence at an earlier age. -They may be given fewer restrictions on appropriate clothing, dating habits, or curfew.
when dividing up household chores... -Sons may be asked to take out the garbage or perform other tasks that require strength or toughness. They are often free from performing domestic duties such as cleaning or cooking and other household tasks that are considered feminine. -Daughters may be asked to fold laundry or perform duties that require neatness and care.
-Teachers may not realize that they are acting in ways that reproduce gender differentiated behavior patterns. Yet, any time they ask students to arrange their seats or line up according to gender, teachers are asserting that boys and girls should be treated differently
-When children do not conform to the appropriate gender role, they may face negative sanctions such as being criticized or marginalized by their peers.
-Affects people’s lives by shaping their opinions, attitudes and beliefs. -Commercials are the vast source of gender stereotyping, because they are adapted to the specific, either male or female target, and are “the reflection of the recipient”. The aim of the modern commercial is not only the satisfaction of needs but also their creation.
-Education often focuses on the advantage males have over females in science and math, but fails to recognize the falling behind of males to females in literacy.
-Now a days there are still courses that focus mainly on one specific gender then the other. Of course both genders can take the same class yet when it comes to see who succeeded more later on, it will be the gender that the subject applies to most.
-Knowing early on that children begin to almost restrict themselves to same-gendered groups. One thing that is an influence on peer groups is student behavior. -If a peer group strongly holds to a conventional gender social norm, members will behave in ways predicted by their gender roles. If there is not a unanimous peer agreement, gender roles do not correlate with behavior.
-Boys tend to participate in more active and forceful activities in larger groups, away from adults. -Girls were more likely to play in small groups, near adults.
-Mass media still perpetuates traditional gender stereotypes with men have been perceived as the head of the household and women were mainly housewives.
-Women are more often presented in commercials, because they are seen as responsible for making everyday purchases. Women are shown rather in the commercials with cosmetics and domestic products. -Men generally advertise cars, cigarettes, business products or investment.
Distinct expectations for GIRLS and BOYS.
Boys’ toys are rated as violent, competitive, exciting, and somewhat dangerous. (wrestlers, soldiers, guns, etc.). Boys focus on strength and toughness, being a leader and masculine—to have power.
Girls’ toys are associated with physical attractiveness, nurturing, and domestic skill (Barbie dolls & accessories, ballerina costumes, makeup, jewelry, etc.). Girls focus on attractiveness and appearance, perhaps leading to a message that this is the most important thing—to look pretty.
The Gender Wage Gap, State by State
The DARK BLUE states represents that 80% and more women make .80 cents or more for every dollar a men makes. The BLUE states represents the women who make 78.0 to 79.9 cents for every dollar a men makes. The SKY BLUE states represents the women who make 75.4 to 77.9 cents for every dollar a men makes. The LIGHT BLUE states represents the women who make less than 75.4 cents for every dollar a men makes.
- Aggressive - Rough - Unemotional - Blunt - Logical - Direct - Active - Sloppy
- Unaggressive - Gentle - Emotional - Tactful - Less logical - Not ambitious - Dependent - Passive - Neat
Male characterized FEMALE as...
Female characterized MALE as...