Beyond the CRAAP Test by Joi Jackson

created using Dark 2 template
published by Joi Jackson



A New Tool for Source Evaluation

Employer Perceptions


Of Employers Prioritize Locating, Organizing, and Evaluating Information


Of Employers Believe Colleges/Universities Help Students Develop These Skills


Of Employers Prioritize Critical Thinking and Analytic Reasoning

Deficiencies of the CRAAP Test

Method does not help students evaluate an argument.

Method is inadequate for all sources.

Method biases certain experts and gatekeepers of information.

What's Wrong With These Statements?

"It's not about Harriet Tubman, it's about keeping the picture on the $20," [he] said on Tuesday evening []. He pulled a $20 bill from his pocket, pointed at Jackson and added "Y'know? Why would you want to change that?"

Question: Do chimpanzees have theory of mind (the ability to ascribe mental states to others and use the states to explain and predict their actions)? Experiment: An adult chimpanzee was shown a series of videotaped scenes of a human actor struggling with a variety of problems. With each videotape the chimpanzee was given several photographs, one that included a picture of the solution to the problem. Result: The chimpanzee consistently chose the correct photographs Conclusion: The animal recognized the videotape as representing a problem, understood the actor's purpose, and chose alternatives compatible with that purpose. Therefore, chimpanzees have a theory of mind.

Original Comment “So, when the rightfully angry people of Ohio and Michigan and Pennsylvania and Wisconsin find out after a few months in office that President Trump wasn’t going to do a damn thing for them, it will be too late to do anything about it. But I get it. You wanted to send a message. You had righteous anger and justifiable anger. Well, message sent. Good night, America. You’ve just elected the last president of the United States.” Clarification “Yeah, well, that’s what I think—you know, the United States that we know now, for better or worse, won’t be the United States that we know after four years of Donald Trump. So, we all—those of us who are upset at the things about this country that we’re upset about, the way to fix it isn’t to put Trump in there, you know, to blow it up.”

A logical fallacy is a"common error in reasoning that will undermine the logic of an argument." By incorporating logical fallacies within an information literacy lesson plan, we can help students  (especially first-year students) critically evaluate more than just the superficial aspects of a resource.

Each One Contains a Logical Fallacy!

Help students evaluate the arguments of others

Help students evaluate their own arguments

Help students evaluate resources other than scholarly research (e.g. social media)


Traditional Wisdom

False Analogy

Slippery Slope & Traditional Wisdom


Abdullah, H. (2016, June 22). Iowa Congressman’s Move to Block Harriet Tubman From $20 Comes Up Short. Almossawi, A. (2013). An Illustrated Book of Bad Arguments. Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2008). Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? 30 years later. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12(5), 187–192. Falling short? college learning and career success. (2016). NACTA Journal, 60(1), 1-6. 3158 Moore, M. (2016, November 7). Michael Moore: If Elected, Donald Trump Would Be “Last President of the United States” [interview]. Sjoberg, E. A. (2017). Logical fallacies in animal model research. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 13, 3.

Infographic by Joi Jackson, Reference and Instruction Librarian Penn State University - Harrisburg