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Information Resources and Services

Zulema Garza LSSL 5334 - Summer I 


Major Reference Sources

Bibliographic resources include books, magazines, and newspapers. They are used to identify or verify information, locate materials and select materials for collections.    

Encyclopedias have information about anything and everything.  They can be both print and electronic.

Dictionaries, concordances, and manuals help answer questions about words, meanings, usage, etc.

Databases and indexes are used to find information about both current and historic periodical articles, etc.

Atlases, gazetteers, maps, geographic information systems and travel guides are all used for a variety of ways.  They can provide visuals, directions and information.

Health, law and business questions are found under special guidelines and sources.

Biographical information sources are used for information about the lives of both living and deceased people.

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Government information sources are used for information on many important issues.


Ready reference sources.  They are used to find quick answers.  They include telephone books, consumer reports, almanacs, etc.


Special Topics

The Internet as a reference tool

5 Steps to Successful Internet Reference: 1.   Ask yourself, Is the Internet the right medium? 2.  Select the right Internet tool. 3.  Construct the right search terms. 4.  Use the right search operators. 5.  Evaluate the search results. 

Readers Advisory Services are important so the patrons can navigate their way to finding a great book or resource.

Services for children and YA require excellent oral, listening, and writing skills.  Nonverbal communication is very important. Considerations include: safety, confidentiality, copyright, homework help and Internet use. 

Children and Young Adults

Information Literacy 

The Big 6 1. Defining the information problem 2. Determining the possible sources 3. Locating the sources 4. Using the information and extracting the information needed 5. Organizing the material and printing it 6. Evaluating the product and process (Big6, 2012) 

Developing and Managing Reference Collections and Services

Selecting and Evaluating Reference Materials 

Must be focused, specific and selective.  Considerations include:  scope, quality of content, authority of author and/or publisher, accuracy of content, currency, ease of use, arrangement of material, appropriateness to the audience, format and cost.

Assessing and Improving Reference  Services

3 Aspects can and should be evaluated: 1.  Reference collection 2.  Reference staff 3.  Reference services 

Top 10 Reference 2.0 Tools

1. Apps 2. Blogs 3. Instant Messaging/SMS 4. Mashups 5. Microblogs 6. Podcasts/Video Sharing 7. RSS Feeds 8. Social Bookmarking 9. Social Networking 10. Wikis 

Cassell, Kay Ann, and Uma Hiremath. Reference and information services an introduction. 3rd ed. Chicago: Neal-Schuman, an imprint of the American Library Association, 2013. Print.